The focus of the proposed study is on past National Football League players suffering from head injuries leading to CTE (Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy). Case control methodology is appropriate for this study. To enhance efficiency the case control methodology must assume a retrospective approach because the proposed study involves interviewing the existing cases of head injuries in the sampled population. The study will sample the players from the National Football League that fit into the studys categories based on certain criteria dealing with their playing days. This can be completed by separating the players into two groups. Case groups and control groups and theyre important because they form the basis for assessments and comparisons (Sim & Wright 2002). The principle aim for this methodology is to determine the exposure risk of CTE associated with head injuries.
Basically the proposed study involves the comparison of the incidences of head injuries and Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy. This must be done between the players that played and suffered from head injuries and then those that are considered relatively healthy. These two groups are prominent in this proposed methodology. This includes the case group and the control group. Notably the method requires a considerable time to attain desired results (Sim & Wright 2002). So its my opinion that the proposed method is appropriate for the study.
Both the case and control groups will be enrolled in the research. This explains why the proposed investigation is a case control study. The basic implication is that an empirically supported inclusion and exclusion criteria have to be adopted. The cases include those players who have previously suffered head injuries as opposed to those without any history of head injuries or Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy. This participant combination forms a perfect case control set because players are willing to submit to tests and there are already cases that have been studied. Moreover purposive sampling of all affected players would be preferred but the process must also conform to the ethical and legal provisions for research in order to protect those that are surveyed. For instance issues of informed consent have to be adequately addressed (Walker & Shostak 2010). Purposive sampling helps to draw a representative sample and that can be calculated using the Fischers formula because the representative sample is projected to be less than ten thousand. Generally this study will involve a highly constricted sample size. This is because the proposed study is retrospective and requires follow up for the players enrolled in this study. Thus it is intensive and very costly within larger sample sizes.
A combined approach for data collection is appropriate for the proposed study. In this approach qualitative as well as quantitative strategies are applied during data collection process. To enhance the process of triangulation active clinical checkups and diagnosis are also necessary (Walker & Shostak 2010). This is because the researcher is able to detect the new cases of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy amongst the enrolled players Qualitative and quantitative data management techniques shall be used in the study because the data analysis mainly entails discussions and fact finding answers. However quantitative data analysis involves the use of sophisticated data management tools like bar graphs pie charts and basic statistical conclusions.
INSTRUMENTATION AND DATA COLLECTION PLANS:
Qualitative data gathering to be used in the proposed study entail the use of key informant interviews focus groups and personal observations. Quantitative approaches involve the active administration of assessment tools such as semi structured questionnaires (Keilegom & Wilson 2011). Because the proposed study is a case control person-to-person data collection is appropriate. This will automatically rule out the possibility of a mailed survey. Based on this projected sample the participants shall report to the study sites and the researchers shall conduct clinical monitoring personal interviews observations and focus groups during the reporting stage.
PROPOSED ANALYSIS OF THE DATA:
The results received from the proposed sample will vary but this depends on the inclination or objective of the data analysis (Fairclough 2010). Results indicating the correlation between head injuries in the National Football League and the occurrence of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy are critical. Thats what needs to be proven so additionally that factors that influence the occurrence of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy amongst those with head injuries are also expected. Additionally issues about the efficiency of the clinical management strategies in head injuries are likely to come up. Determination and analysis of responses must be conducted through diverse mechanisms. For instance similar causative factors linked to the occurrence of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy must be grouped statistically. Analytically such processes require sophisticated data management tools.
The correlation and regression analysis include some of the statistical tools applicable in the proposed study (Keilegom & Wilson 2011). The proposed results will have significant implications on the rest of the players. For instance certain revelations might dispel existing beliefs and there may be different variables that the researcher may include in the proposed study. The likelihood of occurrence between Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy and the incidences of head injuries while players are hit on the field are some of the variables. A correlation of the dependent and independent variables may be drawn from the two outlined examples. One the occurrence or presence of head injury which remains as one of the crucial independent variable in the proposed study and of course the occurrence of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy which also comes into play as another vital dependent variable. Therefore it can be stated that the occurrence of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy depends on the presence of a head injury amongst the players in the study. A more comprehensive and experiential decision making criteria must be used in the study. In this context various statistical inferences will have a very critical role.
Comparison of the confidence intervals of various correlating factors will influence most decisions and assumptions in the proposed study. This is appropriate for all correlating factors (Sim & Wright 2002). This process entails the application of statistical distribution tables in determining the confidence intervals. Advanced computer software for data management must be used to enhance the high level of data processing. Basically this computer software must be applicable in the computation of various statistical conclusions and associations. Validity and reliability measurements are critical for all experimental interviews and investigations. Application of content validity ensures that an appropriate and representative sample size is utilized. Also the criterion validity measurement when applied in the proposed study will help to test the precision of definite measures to take in order to better understand Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy.
Construct validity may preferably be used in the proposed study to confirm whether the variables measure the proposed constructs (Fairclough 2010). For purposes of objectivity and reliance measurements on the reliability of factors within a study are vital. In the proposed study there are several measurement methodologies that might be applied for reliability. The determination and testing of reliability may automatically occur when certain results are finalized. In these scenarios the results must be tested for both internal and external consistency. There are other various applicable methodologies in measuring reliability. This study might involve the use of inter-observer or test-retests as strategies for measuring reliability. These processes are important because they improve the quality of data and validate the findings.”